HAKKARI

203 km southeast of Van, is Hakkari, sits at an altitude of 1700 m, with high mountains dominating the land, and wide valleys separate the great peaks with heights exceeding 4000 m. Mounts Cilo and Sat are two of the outstanding ones for mountaineering and winter sports. The snow accumulating on the upper parts of these mountains form beautiful glaciers. The Zap Valley, through which the road to the city passes, offers fantastic scenery.

This land has witnessed the passing of tribes since earliest times. The medieval fortress reflects the history of this small region and is worth seeing, together with the Medresse standing nearby.

Formerly ÇÖLEMERIK, city, capital of Hakkâri il (province), southeastern Turkey. It lies at an altitude of about 5,500 ft (1,700 m), surrounded by mountains and overlooked by a medieval fortress, the former residence of its Kurdish rulers. A market for local livestock and livestock products, Hakkâri has road links to Van to the north and Siirt to the west.

Hakkâri il, with an area of 3,817 sq mi (9,885 sq km), is drained by the Great Zab River (Büyükzap Suyu). Iran borders it on the east and Iraq on the south. Mostly mountainous, it is the most sparsely populated and isolated il in Turkey. East of Hakkâri city rise the high ranges of the Cilo (13,700 ft) and Sat (12,500 ft) mountains. Cropland is scarce, and the proportion of land under cultivation is among the nation's lowest. Livestock raising is the main activity. The largely Kurdish population is semi-nomadic, moving to higher summer pastures in season. Although the region was annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1515-16, it was ruled largely by local Kurdish amirs under nominal Ottoman suzerainty until the mid-19th century. Pop. (1980) city, 18,009; (1983 est.) il, 174,200.